A beginner’s guide to value investing

In the realm of investing, where trends often overshadow fundamentals, value investing stands as a testament to the power of intrinsic value. Championed by Benjamin Graham and Warren Buffett, this strategy transcends picking stocks by emphasizing the discovery of undervalued companies with robust fundamentals, promising long-term gains over short-term speculation. This approach is at the heart of what total investing value is, considering both the market price and the potential growth of investments.

What is value investing?

Value investing is the art of uncovering “diamonds in the rough”—companies that the market undervalues, but that have solid fundamentals. It’s about acquiring assets at a price less than their true worth, based on diligent analysis of financial health indicators like revenue, earnings, and dividends. Among these, value investing in stocks represent opportunities for investors seeking stability in fluctuating markets.

This method contrasts with value investing vs. growth investing, where the latter focuses more on companies expected to grow at an above-average rate in the market.

The principles of value investing

This strategy is deeply rooted in the belief that the stock market doesn’t always reflect the true value of a company due to overreactions to short-term events, changes in market sentiment, or other external factors. By conducting diligent research and analysis, value investors aim to profit from these market inefficiencies.

Value investing involves:

  • Maintaining discipline and patience: Successful value investing demands resilience against the allure of short-term market trends and fluctuations.
  • Adopting a long-term investment horizon: Value investing thrives on the principle of patience, giving the market ample time to adjust and recognize the true value of undervalued stocks.
  • Applying the margin of safety principle: Central to value investing, this strategy involves purchasing stocks at a price well below their intrinsic value. This safety margin acts as a protective buffer against market volatility and potential valuation errors.
  • Conducting a thorough fundamental analysis: Value investing involves a deep dive into the company’s fundamentals, including its competitive advantages, management quality, and growth prospects.

How does value investing work?

Understanding the bedrock principles of value investing sets the stage for employing its critical tools: financial ratios. These quantitative measures are crucial for value investing, particularly in deep value investing, where investors look for companies that are not just undervalued but severely discounted due to market overreactions.




Dividend yield

This tells you how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its stock price. High dividend yield could mean the stock is undervalued or that the company is doing well enough to return a good amount of cash to its shareholders.

It’s calculated as the annual dividends paid per share divided by the current stock price. For example, a high dividend yield might suggest the company is financially healthy and generous towards its shareholders.

Annual dividends per share/ Current stock price

Price-to-Book (P/B) ratio

This compares a company’s stock price to its book value per share, giving you insight into whether the stock is undervalued.

A P/B ratio less than 1 often suggests that the stock might be trading for less than the value of the company’s assets. This ratio is particularly useful for comparing companies in sectors like manufacturing or real estate, where physical assets play a significant role.

Market price per share/
Book value per share

Price-to-Earnings (P/E) ratio

It measures how much investors are willing to pay for a dollar of earnings. A lower P/E ratio might indicate that the stock is undervalued, assuming the company’s future earnings prospects are strong.

However, it’s crucial to compare this ratio with other companies in the same industry, as what’s considered “low” can vary widely.

Market price per share/
Earnings per share

Ultimately, strategies for value investing are about meticulous selection, patience, and the conviction to stick to one’s analysis and principles, even when the market suggests otherwise.

Risks of value investing

While value investing can offer substantial rewards, it also comes with its share of risks:

  • Market volatility: The prices of stocks, even those that seem undervalued, are not immune to the whims of market forces. Fluctuations driven by changes in market sentiment, economic indicators, or global events can lead to significant volatility. This volatility may not only affect the stock’s price in the short term but also challenge an investor’s capacity to discern the stock’s true value. For value investors who rely on a long-term investment horizon, navigating these price swings and maintaining focus on the fundamental value of their investments can be particularly testing.
  • Value traps: A more insidious risk comes from what are known as value traps. These stocks appear undervalued when analyzed through traditional financial metrics, yet their low price is justified due to fundamental issues with the company itself, such as a failing business model, obsolete technology, or ineffective management. Such stocks may seem like bargains but lack the underlying strength to bounce back and achieve price appreciation. The ability to distinguish between genuinely undervalued companies with solid fundamentals and those that are cheap for a reason is crucial for value investors to avoid these traps.

Broadening your investment strategies

Navigating these risks requires a blend of diligent research, a robust analytical framework, and the patience to wait for the market to recognize the inherent value of undervalued stocks. Moreover, developing an eye for detecting value traps can save investors from potential pitfalls, making it an essential skill in the value investor’s toolkit.

While value investing is a solid approach, it’s just one strategy among many. Diversification and exploring various asset classes can also play a crucial role in building a strong investment portfolio.

At Mintos, we provide investment opportunities aimed at broadening your strategy palette. Beyond the traditional avenues, we offer access to a diverse range of asset classes and investment products that cater to both seasoned investors and those new to the market.

Explore these options, whether you’re looking into ETFs, seeking long-term investments, or interested in generating passive income.


This is a marketing communication and in no way should be viewed as investment research, advice, or recommendation to invest. The value of your investment can go up as well as down. Past performance of financial instruments does not guarantee future returns. Investing in financial instruments involves risk; before investing, consider your knowledge, experience, financial situation, and investment objectives.


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